Linguistic aspects of Bible translation

A.S. Desnitsky
Metaphors in contemporary Bible translation

Translating metaphors has been recognized as one of the most basic translational problems. Cognitive approaches in linguistics opened new perspectives on metaphors, also in translation studies. This paper deals with some examples from the experience of the Institute for Bible Translation in relation to metaphors. Special attention is paid to the border area between metaphors and idiomatic expressions and also to the links between metaphors and world view, including theological beliefs of an author. All that does not allow for an automatic translation of metaphors; a translator must consider both the meaning of the original and the linguistic means of the receptor language.

Key words: metaphor, translation, Bible, phraseology, cognitive linguistics, word view, grammar, theology

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A. Somov
Key terms dealing with the afterlife in Bible translations into languages spoken in Buddhist cultures

This article investigates several Biblical terms related to the conceptual domain of “the afterlife” and to problems that arise in understanding when efforts are made to translate these terms into languages with a traditional Buddhist culture (namely, Buryat, Kalmyk and Tuvan), in light of existing conceptions of the afterlife in Buddhism. Attention is focused on analyzing linguistic means of expressing the concepts of death and resurrection from the dead. The conclusion is drawn that in the given languages, no concept of resurrection from the dead was present in the Buddhist culture, which explains why there is also no lexeme to express such a concept in these languages. Attempts at introducing such a lexeme into the language are considered artificial by native speakers, since they say that these sound unnatural and do not convey any meaning. This is why translations into these languages used lexemes with a more general meaning or lexemes that survived from their pre-Buddhist period.

Key words: cognitive linguistics, concepts, conceptual domains, conceptual metaphor theory, the afterlife, Bible, Biblical studies, Bible translation, Buryat, Kalmyk, Tuvan

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