Language and society

M. Alekseyev
The law on the languages of the peoples of the Russian Federation and the languages of minority peoples: Ando-Tsez languages

This paper focuses on the problem of introducing writing systems for the Ando-Tsez group of languages in Dagestan. These languages do not have their own orthographies, which leads to substantial difficulties in language study (especially at the elementary level) because reading and writing are taught in a language other than the students' mother tongue. Nevertheless, all the conditions for including these languages in formal education have been met, such as the use of the modern Avar alphabet for producing scholarly transcriptions of these languages in a way adapted to the phonologies of the Ando-Tsez languages.

Key words: Avar, Andi-Tsez languages, writing systems, primers

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Y. Psyanchin
Instruction in official and native languages at the Sholokhov University in Ufa

This article examines the role played in language instruction at a specific Russian institute of higher education by the 1999 Law on Languages of Bashkortostan and Federal Law #309-F3 from 2007. It investigates the place that classroom instruction on the mother tongue has in the curriculum of a professional trade school, where classes are offered on Bashkir, Russian and Ukrainian. Instruction on Bashkir as a mother tongue receives special attention in the article. The author underlines the importance of work done by scholars and instructors in developing programs for the curriculum.

Key words: mother tongue education, language legislation, Bashkir, Russian, Ukrainian, bilingualism, trilingualism

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